Machine Control System

  • Introduction to Automation
  • Operation & Types of Relays
  • Gate Functions Using Relays
  • Architecture of PLC & Explanation
  • Types of PLC and Programming Languages
  • Sensor Wiring, MCC Panel Wiring
  • PLC Control Panel Wiring
  • Do’s & Don’ts of Ladder Diagram&Gate functions
  • Latching & Unlatching with Memory Concepts
  • 6 Brands of Controller
    • Software Handling
    • Study of Instructions
    • Online Programming
    • HMI Software Handling
    • Interfacing with Controller
    • Programming of Machine Process
  • VFD Controlling AC Motors
  • SCADA Software Handling
  • Tool Properties
  • Screen Development
  • Script Programming
  • Data Transfer Protocols

Machine Control System

Automation is the technology by which a process or procedure is performed with minimal human assistance. Automation  or automatic control is the use of various control systems for operating equipment such as machinery, processes in factories, boilers and heat treating ovens, switching on telephone networks, steering and stabilization of ships, aircraft and other applications and vehicles with minimal or reduced human intervention.
Automation covers applications ranging from a household thermostat controlling a boiler, to a large industrial control system with tens of thousands of input measurements and output control signals. In control complexity, it can range from simple on-off control to multi-variable high-level algorithms.
In the simplest type of an automatic control loop, a controller compares a measured value of a process with a desired set value, and processes the resulting error signal to change some input to the process, in such a way that the process stays at its set point despite disturbances. This closed-loop control is an application of negative feedback to a system. The mathematical basis of control theory was begun in the 18th century and advanced rapidly in the 20th.
Automation has been achieved by various means including mechanical, hydraulic, pneumatic, electrical, electronic devices and computers, usually in combination. Complicated systems, such as modern factories, airplanes and ships typically use all these combined techniques. The benefit of automation includes labor savings, savings in electricity costs, savings in material costs, and improvements to quality, accuracy, and precision.

Fundamentally, there are two types of control loop; open loop control, and closed loop feedback control.

In open loop control, the control action from the controller is independent of the “process output” (or “controlled process variable”). A good example of this is a central heating boiler controlled only by a timer, so that heat is applied for a constant time, regardless of the temperature of the building. (The control action is the switching on/off of the boiler. The process output is the building temperature).
In closed-loop control, the control action from the controller is dependent on the process output. In the case of the boiler analogy, this would include a thermostat to monitor the building temperature, and thereby feedback a signal to ensure the controller maintains the building at the temperature set on the thermostat. A closed loop controller, therefore, has a feedback loop which ensures the controller exerts a control action to give a process output the same as the “Reference input” or “set point”. For this reason, closed-loop controllers are also called feedback controllers.

The advantages of automation are:

  • Increased throughput or productivity.
  • Improved quality or increased predictability of quality.
  • Reduced direct human labor costs and expenses.
  • Can complete tasks where a high degree of accuracy is required.
  • Replaces humans in tasks done in dangerous environments
  • Performs tasks that are beyond human capabilities of size, weight, speed, endurance, etc.
  • Reduces operation time and work handling time significantly.

Types of automation tools exist:

  • ANN – Artificial Neural Network
  • DCS – Distributed Control System
  • HMI – Human Machine Interface
  • SCADA – Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition
  • PLC – Programmable Logic Controller
  • Instrumentation
  • Motion control
  • Robotics